Weekly Epidemiological Report

January Week 1

Editoral

Optimising SARS-CoV-2 Testing Capacity: NCDC Pilots Use of SARS-CoV-2 RDT in Nigeria

Since the first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was reported in Nigeria in February 2020, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has continued to lead public health response activities. With the evolution of the pandemic and scientific guidance for response activities, NCDC has continued to introduce diverse response measures. One critical priority for the response, is scale up of access to testing.

As part of measures to scale up access to testing, NCDC has worked with States and partners to establish walk-in sites for sample collection, increase communications around testing and activate at least one testing laboratory in every state and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Timely access to testing is critical for early diagnosis, effective case management and prompt tracing of likely contacts thereby limiting spread of the virus.

A major challenge in the COVID-19 response is the long turnaround time for testing, using the molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The World Health Organisation has recently granted emergency use authorisation for Rapid Diagnostic Test (Ag-RDTs) kits, produced by Abott and SD-Biosensor.

In line with the above, NCDC carried out a national validation of these test kits and has now approved its inclusion in the country’s COVID-19 testing strategy. The use of these approved Ag-RDTs is limited to congregate settings such as camps, workplace, health facilities to triage patients etc. Given the limitations of these Ag-RDTs, molecular PCR remains the gold standard for testing.

The NCDC has begun a pilot use of the approved Ag-RDTs in five selected health facilities in FCT, Nigeria. The overall goal is to assess the cost effectiveness of implementing antigen detecting SARS-CoV-2 rapid diagnostic tests and use lessons learnt to scale-up to other health facilities across Nigeria. The pilot involved training of healthcare workers on detection, sample collection, packaging, transportation, testing and data collection.

The proper use of Ag-RDTs is expected to improve the national testing capacity by supporting the existing network of COVID-testing laboratories. We urge states and other public and private institutions to leverage on this plan, by ensuring appropriate use in the right settings. More information on the use of Ag-RDTs can be found here..


Summary of Incidents

Notes

1. Information for this disease was retrieved from the Technical Working Group and Situation Reports

2. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for this disease is reported for confirmed cases only

3. Information for this disease was retrieved from IDSR 002 data

4. CFR for this disease is reported for total cases i.e. suspected + confirmed

5. Information for sentinel influenza was retrieved from the laboratory


Lassa Fever

Key points

• There were 109 suspected cases, nine were laboratory confirmed and two deaths were recorded from four states

Actions

To date:

• The National multisectoral Lassa fever Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) was activated to coordinate response activities across states

• State Public Health Emergency Operations Centre activated in affected states

Planned:

• Continue mobilisation of resources

• Finalise Lassa fever five-year strategic plan


Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM)

Key points

• There were no suspected cases of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) reported this week

Actions

To date:

• National CSM TWG meets weekly to review reports from states and plan appropriately

• Enhanced surveillance in all states

Planned:

• Continue harmonisation of the national line list and SORMAS data

• Continue to ensure that states reporting cases send their line lists and collect CSM samples


Yellow Fever

Key points

• There were 17 suspected cases of Yellow Fever (YF) reported from 14 LGAs in 10 states. None was laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded

Actions

To date:

• National YF multi-partner Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) continues to coordinate response activities across States

• Daily monitoring and analysis oof surveillance data across the country to guide response activities

• Concluded Accelerated Preventive Mass Vaccination (PMVC) Campaign in Enugu, Delta and PMVC in Bauchi State

Planned:

• Continue implementation of the Incident Action Plan (IAP) and mobilise required resources for the outbreak response

• Continue to support affected states across all pillars of response

• Continue harmonisation of surveillance and laboratory data ongoing


Cholera

Key points

• There were no cases of Cholera reported this week

Actions

To date

• National Cholera Multi-Sectoral Technical Working Group (TWG) is monitoring all states and supporting affected states

Planned:

• Continue follow up and monitoring of non-reporting states

• Continue harmonisation of the national line list and SORMAS data


Measles

Key points

• There were 131 suspected cases of Measles reported from 42 LGAs in 13 States. There was no laboratory confirmed case and no death was recorded

Actions

To date

• National Measles TWG is closely monitoring measles surveillance data and providing feedback to relevant agencies and development partners

• Weekly surveillance and laboratory data harmonisation ongoing

Planned:

• Intensify follow up with states to update and transmit line list

• Continue monthly measles surveillance data review


Monkeypox

Key points

• There were three suspected cases of Monkeypox reported from two LGAs in two States (Bayelsa – 1 & Delta – 2)

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Actions

To date

• National Monkeypox Technical Working Group (TWG) is monitoring activities in all states

Planned:

• Enhance surveillance for monkeypox in high burden states

• Continue harmonisation of the national line list and SORMAS data


Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)

Key points

• There were 46 suspected cases of AFP reported from LGAs in 21

• States. None was laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded


National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance


Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

Actions

To date:

• National COVID-19 multi-partner Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) continues to coordinate response activities across States

• Published and disseminated the updated COVID-19 case definition to stakeholders

• Intensified follow up with States to collect data on cases and contacts

• Trained healthcare workers on IPC in Nasarawa State

• Supported National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) with sensitization of religious leaders and civil society organisations (CSOs) on planned vaccination

Planned:

• Deploy additional Rapid Response Teams to support States

• Finalise Local Government Area (LGA)/State transmission categorisation

• Support supervisory visits to private laboratories in FCT


Timeliness and Completeness of Reports


Timeliness and Completeness of Reports by State

Highlight of the week

  • Summary of Incidents
  • Lassa Fever
  • Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM)
  • Yellow Fever
  • Cholera
  • Measles
  • Monkeypox
  • Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)
  • National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance
  • Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
  • Timeliness and Completeness of Reports
  • Timeliness and Completeness of Reports by State

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