Weekly Epidemiological Report

September Week 36

Editoral

Nigeria Government Launches Household Seroprevalence Survey for COVID-19

The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has continued to work closely with relevant Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) in the fight against the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Nigeria. Given the novelty of the virus, one of the key priority areas of response is to improve knowledge through research activities and epidemiological studies. This is in addition to other key areas such as surveillance, laboratory, case management, risk communication, point of entry, infection prevention and control etc.

In line with the above and as part of the national drive to contribute to the global body of knowledge on COVID-19, the NCDC and the Nigeria Institute of Medical Research (NIMR) recently launched seroprevalence household surveys in four states in Nigeria - Lagos, Gombe, Enugu and Nasarawa States. The survey which will be conducted between September and November 2020, is being supported by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US-CDC) and the University College London (supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation).

The methodology involves testing blood samples for the presence of COVID-19 antibodies in randomly selected consenting households in the target states. This survey will foster understanding of the transmission dynamics of the virus in Nigeria including the identification of the presence of antibodies among people who have COVID-19 but are not showing symptoms; age groups commonly affected, and ultimately, the true burden of COVID-19 in the population. In addition, study participants will answer a brief questionnaire and be tested for malaria, to assess the possible relationship between malaria and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

A key benefit of this survey is that it will help inform and strengthen Nigeria’s COVID-19 response activities towards ending the outbreak. As this is the first set of household surveys to be conducted for COVID-19 in Nigeria, we urge the general public particularly in the study locations, to cooperate with the research officials. In addition to the contribution to science, this will further support the growth of in-country capacity for seroprevalence research and leadership by home-grown experts.


Summary of Incidents

Notes

1. Information for this disease was retrieved from the Technical Working Group and Situation Reports

2. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for this disease is reported for confirmed cases only

3. Information for this disease was retrieved from IDSR 002 data

4. CFR for this disease is reported for total cases i.e. suspected + confirmed

5. Information for sentinel influenza was retrieved from the laboratory


Lassa Fever

Key points

• There were 46 suspected cases, four were laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded from three LGAs in three states.

• No healthcare worker was infected in the reporting week

Actions

To date:

• National Lassa fever multi-partner, multi-sectoral Technical Working Group (TWG) continues to coordinate the response activities at all levels

• Enhanced surveillance (contact tracing and active case finding) ongoing in affected states

Planned:

• Continue mobilisation of resources


Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM)

Key points

There were four suspected cases of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) reported from four LGAs in four states (Enugu – 1, Kaduna – 1, Katsina – 1, Kwara – 1). None was laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded

Actions

To date:

• National CSM TWG meets weekly to review reports from states and plan appropriately

• Enhanced surveillance in all states

Planned:

• Continue harmonisation of the national line list and SORMAS data

• Continue to ensure that states reporting cases send their line lists and collect CSM samples


Yellow Fever

Key points

• There were 35 suspected cases of Yellow Fever (YF) reported from 29 LGAs in 14 states. None was laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded

Actions

To date:

• National multiagency YF Technical Working Group (TWG) is coordinating response activities

Planned:

• Continue harmonisation of surveillance and laboratory data ongoing


Cholera

Key points

• There were 20 suspected cases of cholera reported from three LGAs in three states (Bauchi – 1, Borno – 7 & Kebbi – 12). None was laboratory confirmed and two deaths were recorded

Actions

To date

• National Cholera Multi-Sectoral Technical Working Group (TWG) is monitoring all states and supporting affected states

Planned:

• Continue follow up and monitoring of non-reporting states

• Continue harmonisation of the national line list and SORMAS data


Measles

Key points

• There were 84 suspected cases of measles reported from 58 LGAs in 18 states. None was laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded

Actions

To date

• National Measles TWG is closely monitoring measles surveillance data and providing feedback to relevant agencies and development partners

• Weekly surveillance and laboratory data harmonisation ongoing

Planned:

• Intensify follow up with states to update and transmit line list

• Continue monthly measles surveillance data review


Monkeypox

Key points

• There was no suspected case of Monkeypox reported this week

Actions

To date

• National Monkeypox Technical Working Group (TWG) is monitoring activities in all states

Planned:

• Enhance surveillance for monkeypox in high burden states

• Continue harmonisation of the national line list and SORMAS data


Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)

Key points

• There were 100 suspected cases of AFP reported from 84 LGAs in 27 states and FCT. None was laboratory confirmed and no death was recorded


National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance

Key points

• The subtypes A seasonal H3, 2009A/H1N1 and A/not subtyped account for 0(0.0%), 17(33.3%) and 34(66.7%) of the total influenza A positive sample, respectively. The subtypes B VICTORIA, B Not subtyped and B Yamagata account for 3(27.3%), 8(72.7%) and 0(0.0%) of the total influenza B positive samples respectively

• The percentage influenza positive was highest in week 10 with 39.5%.


Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

Actions

To date:

• National COVID-19 multi-partner Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) continues to coordinate response activities across states

• Finalised plans with partners to support 30 Local Government Areas (LGA) in 15 states for active case search and contact tracing

• Ongoing deployment of IPC materials and supplies to the laboratories in the network

• Produced new jingles and shared with Federal Ministry of Environment to increase community mobilisation

Planned:

• Planning engagement meeting with religious leaders

• Support pillars in the development of research proposals in line with the approved Research Agenda for the EOC

• Continue to support MDAs to develop plans and guidelines, and advocate for resources to facilitate implementation

• Finalise the draft guidelines on intensified surveillance in 'silent LGAs' across the country (LGAs that have not reported a single suspected case)


Timeliness and Completeness of Reports


Timeliness and Completeness of Reports by State

Highlight of the week

  • Summary of Incidents
  • Lassa Fever
  • Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM)
  • Yellow Fever
  • Cholera
  • Measles
  • Monkeypox
  • Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)
  • National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance
  • Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
  • Timeliness and Completeness of Reports
  • Timeliness and Completeness of Reports by State

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